Butchering marks can be seen on the mammoth ribs. The top rib shows a fracture from blunt force impact, the middle rib shows a puncture wound and the bottom rib shows chopping marks. (Timothy Rowe et al., The University of Texas at Austin)
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AUSTIN, Texas — The surprising discovery of mammoth fossils in a paleontologist’s backyard have led to an even more unexpected finding.
The roughly 37,000-year-old remains of a female mammoth and her calf show distinct signs of butchering, providing new evidence that humans may have arrived in North America much earlier than believed.
Paleontologist Timothy Rowe first learned of the fossils in 2013 when a neighbor noticed something sticking out of a hillside on some New Mexico property belonging to Rowe.
Upon closer inspection, Rowe found a tusk, a bashed-in mammoth skull and other bones that looked deliberately broken. He believed it was the site where two mammoths had been butchered.
“What we’ve got is amazing,” Rowe said in a statement. “It’s not a charismatic site with a beautiful skeleton laid out on its side. It’s all busted up. But that’s what the story is.”
Rowe, a professor at the University of Texas at Austin’s Jackson School of Geosciences, is an expert in vertebrate paleontology and doesn’t typically study mammoths or early humans. But he couldn’t help but work on the research due to the discovery’s location.
Two six-week excavations took place at the site in 2015 and 2016, but analysis in the lab has taken much longer and remains ongoing, Rowe said. He is the lead author of a new study providing an analysis of the site and its implications, which was published in the journal Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution in July.
What we’ve got is amazing. It’s not a charismatic site with a beautiful skeleton laid out on its side. It’s all busted up. But that’s what the story is.
–Timothy Rowe, paleontologist
“I have yet to fully process the cosmic coincidence of this site appearing in my backyard,” Rowe wrote in an email.
Analyzing the site
Multiple finds at the site paint a portrait of what took place there thousands of years ago, including bone tools, evidence of a fire, bones bearing fractures and other signs of animal butchering by humans.
Long mammoth bones shaped into disposable blades were used to break down the animal carcasses before a fire helped melt down their fat.
Fractures created by blunt force can be seen in the bones, according to the study. No stone tools were at the site, but researchers found flake knives made from bones with worn edges.
A chemical analysis of the sediment around the mammoth bones showed that the fire was sustained and controlled rather than caused by a wildfire or lightning strike. There was also evidence of bone that had been pulverized as well as burned small animal remains, including birds, fish, rodents and lizards.
The research team used CT scans to analyze the bones from the site, finding puncture wounds that would have been used to drain fat from ribs and vertebrae. The humans who butchered the mammoths were thorough, Rowe said.
“I have excavated dinosaurs that were scavenged, but the pattern of bone disarticulation and breakage from human butchering was unlike anything I had seen,” Rowe said.
The most surprising detail about the site is that it’s in New Mexico — and previous evidence has suggested that humans weren’t there until tens of thousands of years later.
Retracing early human steps
Collagen taken from the mammoth bones helped the researchers determine that the animals were…